Dark (or Starry) Sky Parks
Dark (or starry) sky parks are areas of unique natural environment that protect the natural night darkness from pollution by artificial light. They are the equivalent of nature reserves - protecting places of exceptional natural value. They fulfill protective functions for the darkest corners of our planet, where the night environment is not disturbed by artificial light. These parks perform not only ecological but also educational functions.
Protection of darkness is slowly being incorporated into existing nature protection areas, such as national parks. Darkness is a natural resource. Natural darkness is one of the ecological resources in need of protection, dark reserves are used by animals with a nocturnal lifestyle, at risk of extinction in an excessively lit environment. Artificial light has a negative effect on plants that have lost the boundary between night and day due to artificial light, which has a negative impact on their development.
The Bieszczady Starry Park and the Transcarpathian Dark Sky Park have been established as areas promoting the protection of dark skies in Poland and Ukraine, including the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve.